Fetvaci, Emine. “The Art of Osman Hamdi Bey.” Essays: Osman Hamdi Bey. N.p.: Boston University, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016

  • Fetvaci essentially offers a scope into Osman Hamdi Bey’s application western

implications and the artist use of subject in his artwork to start the 19th century Orientalist

art movement. His artwork intertwined the both influences, causing a growth of Western

standards in framing the Ottoman Empire’s identity.


Eldem, Edhem. Making Sense of Osman Hamdi Bey and His Paintings.

Muqarnas. Vol. 29.N.p.: n.p., 2002. 339-83. Print.


  • Edhem argues that Osman Hamdi Bey is in the style of Orientalism, but his

representation of the Orient is more personal than erotic, which is largely seen from

Western painters. Hamdi Bey hasn’t converted to the exotic standard of Europe, which

makes him stand out, but still he paints to capture the Western eye.


Shaw, Wendy M.K. Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archeology, and the

Visualization of History In the Late Ottoman Empire. California: University of California Press, 2003. 31-44, 83-107, 172-184. Print.


  • In the conversion of museums in the Ottoman Empire, Osman Hamdi Bey took on the role as curator and artist during the imperial stages of modernizing Turkey’s museums. His paintings pulled away from classical Ottoman artwork and pushed modernity in the imperial museums.


MacKenzie, John M. Orientalism: History, Theory & the Arts. Oxford Road, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995. 43-70 Print.


  • MacKenzie develops the claims of 19th century Orientalism in art constantly shifting. As Oriental artwork is coming from the West, the Middle East is blossoming in their interpretation of Oriental artwork, but the paradox remains the same. Orientalism is a contrast of past and present in the ideologies of depiction; Osman Hamdi Bey takes the role of creating something from the two.


Ersoy, Ahmet. “Osman Hamdi Bey and the Historiophile Mood – Ottoman Vision and the Romantic Sense of the Past in Late Ottoman Culture.” The Poetics and Politics of Place: Ottoman Istanbul and British Orientalism. N.p.: Pera Museum, 2011. 145-55. Print.


  • Ersoy focuses mainly on the romanticism of modernity flowing through the Ottoman Empire. The Tanzimat generation wanted to build a larger realm of modernity that incorporated the past, when there was still a clash between the two. European influence was still strong, but Osman Hamdi Bey resolved this issue through presenting past in the present with European technique.

Said, Edward W. Orientalism. 25th ed. New York: Random House Inc., 1978. Print.


  • Said argues what the Orientalism means and how it converges with scopes on different aspects by using the term to explore multiple outlooks of life with the symbolism of expression in products. Orientalism is an umbrella term to cover all basis in which Orientalism can influence.


Barrett, Tugce E. “Middle Eastern Art Lovers Rejoice! Louvre is finally coming to Abu Dhabi.” Glammonitor . N.p., 21 Oct. 2014. Web. 2 May 2016.  < >. Online.