1. For overviews of the history of reproductive politics in the United States, see Gordon 2007; Solinger 2005; Ross and Solinger 2017. See also Berkman 2011a.
2. Overviews of the early twentieth-century birth control movement include McCann 1994; Hajo 2010; Engelman 2011. See also Schoen 2005.
3. For overviews of African American women’s organizing for birth control and reproductive rights, see Rodrique 1989; Roberts 1997.
4. Minutes of the Organization Meeting of the Board of Managers of the Harlem Branch of the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, May 20, 1931, Margaret Sanger Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College (hereafter SSC); Muigai 2010.
5. Birth Control Federation of America, Distribution of Birth Control Clinics and Clinical Services, June 1939, Planned Parenthood Federation of America Records I (hereafter PPFA-I), SSC.
6. For an overview of health care among African Americans, see Beardsley 1987.
7. Hazel Moore, “Birth Control for the Negro,” Field Report, 1937, Florence Rose Papers, SSC.
8. For a review of scholarship on Margaret Sanger, see Berkman 2011b. See also Margaret Sanger Papers Project 2001.
9. Margaret Sanger, “To Members and Friends of the Birth Control Federation of America, Inc.,” n.d., Rose Papers.
10. Mary Rinehardt [sic] and Margaret Sanger for Birth Control Federation of America, Inc., “Birth Control and the Negro,” draft proposal, July 1939, 9–10, Rose Papers. The final version of the proposal for the Negro Project is in the Mary [Reinhardt] Lasker Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University.
11. Albert D. Lasker to “my dear Margaret [Sanger],” July 14, 1942, Rose Papers.
12. Margaret Sanger to Dr. Clarence J. Gamble, November 26, 1939, Sanger Papers; Margaret Sanger to Robert E. Seibels, M.D., February 12, 1940, Sanger Papers.
13. Margaret Sanger [to Florence Rose] (“I like the Lasker letter”), n.d., Rose Papers.
14. Janet Fowler Nelson, “Convention Action on Birth Control Laws,” Woman’s Press, July–August 1934, 367–68, Records of the YWCA of the USA, SSC.
15. For a history of the black women’s club movement, see Tuuri 2018. On black women’s health activism, see Smith 1995; Gordon 1991.
16. Florence Rose, Summary Report [of] Field Trips, January 22, 1940, Rose Papers.
17. E. Mae McCarroll, M.D., “A Report on the Two-Year Negro Demonstration Health Program of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.,” paper presented at the Annual Convention of the National Medical Association, August 17, 1942, Rose Papers.
18. Minutes of the Organization Meeting of the Board of Managers of the Harlem Branch of the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, May 20, 1931, Sanger Papers; Mabel K. Staupers, R.N., Birth Control Federation of America form letter, April 5, 1941, Rose Papers; Minutes of National Advisory Council Meeting, Division of Negro Service, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, December 11, 1942, Rose Papers.
19. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee to Mary R. Beard, April 23, 1940, Mary Beard Papers, SSC.
20. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee to Florence Rose, , Rose Papers; “Mississippi Cotton Field Volunteer Clinic,” Summary of Highlights since May 9 meeting of National Advisory Council, December 2, 1940, Rose Papers.
21. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, The 1938 Mississippi Health Project, December 1938, Records of Miscellaneous Organizations, U.S., SSC.
22. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, The 1941 Mississippi Health Project, December 1941, Dorothy Ferebee Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University.
23. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, M.D., “Planned Parenthood as a Public Health Measure for the Negro Race,” paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Birth Control Federation of America, New York City, January 29, 1942, Rose Papers.
24. Mabel Staupers to Margaret Sanger, April 2, 1935, Sanger Papers, Library of Congress, quoted in McCann 1994, 158.
25. On African American midwifery, see Fraser 1998; Smith and Holmes 1996; Smith 1995, chap. 5; Holland 1997, 51. See also Litoff 1978.
26. Minutes of National Advisory Council Meeting, Division of Negro Service, December 11, 1942, Rose Papers; Marie B. Schanks, “Progress and Program on Work with Negroes,” January 1945, Rose Papers; Marie B. Schanks to D. K. Rose, “Summary of Recommendations made by the Planning Committee, 21 Apr 1944: Negro Program,” Rose Papers.
27. Division of Negro Service, “Patients Registered during first 12 months at Bethlehem Center and Fisk Social Center clinic, Summary Report (appendix C),” June 1942, Rose Papers.
28. Marie S[chanks] Key, Summary Report on Work with Minority Groups, 1944– 1947, December 19, 1947, Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts Records, SSC.
29. M. B. Schanks, “Field trip to Boston, Mass, Brockton, Mass, Washington, D.C., February 18–28, 1945,” March 1, 1945, Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts Records.
30. On accusations against the YWCA, see the widely distributed 1948 pamphlet by Joseph Kamp, “Behind the Lace Curtains of the YWCA: A Report on the Extent and Nature of the Infiltration by Communist, Socialist and Other Left-Wing Elements, and the Resultant Red Complexion of Propaganda Disseminated in, by, and through the Young Women’s Christian Association,” Records of the YWCA of the USA. For a history of the YWCA, see Robertson 2007.
31. For the Ingram campaign and Sojourners for Truth and Justice, see Gore 2005, 2015; Martin 1985; McDuffie 2008. For studies of Rosa Parks and other women on the black left from the 1930s to 1970s, see Gore et al. 2009.
32. For introductions to women of color organizing in the late twentieth century for what comes to be known as “reproductive justice,” see Silliman et al., 2016; Ross and Solinger, 2017; Ross et al. 2017.
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