My rihla fi talab al-ʿilm (educational journey) started in Lebanon at the American University of Beirut. After three years wandering in the wilderness (that is, majoring in Mathematics, B.S. 1990), I "saw the light" and joined the History Department to study Middle East History (B.A. 1991; M.A. 1996). I read Medieval, pre-Modern and Modern Middle East History with the late Kamal Salibi, Islamic Culture, History and Religious Thought with Tarif Khalidi, Social and Intellectual History, and the discipline of History with Samir Seikaly, Ottoman History and History of pre-Modern Lebanon with Abdulrahim Abu-Husayn, and Medieval Islamic Legal and Social History with Basim Musallam. In 1996, I came to the United States to work on the Ph.D. at Yale University, where I studied the basic curriculum in Arabic and Islamic Studies: Philosophy and Intellectual History with Dimitri Gutas; Arabic Language, Poetry and Grammar with Beatrice Gruendler; Qurʾan, Tafsir and Mysticism with Gerhard Bowering, and Islamic Law with Ann E. Mayer. I also ventured into Ancient Christianity and Early Christian Monasticism with Bentley Layton, audited Diaspora Christianity with Wayne Meeks, and studied Syriac with Paul-Alain Beaulieu, Syriac Historiography and Religious Texts with Walid Saleh, and Persian with Fereshteh Amanat-Kowssar. My professors and classmates at AUB and Yale were instrumental in my education. I owe a great deal to them for instilling in me the passion for intellectual curiosity and knowledge and helping me become a better scholar and teacher. The most fascinating thing about this educational journey is that it continues and benefits from many friends and colleagues whose work I find inspiring and who generously share their comments and advice about my own writing and research; they are too numerous to list here.



My research (Publications) is varied and reflects my broad educational formation and intellectual curiosities. As a historian of Islam, I am particularly interested in exploring how Muslims, from the days of the prophet Muhammad until today, have perceived their own past and religious tradition, and appropriated them in ways to engage the challenges of their own respective environments. In other words, what draws me to the study of Islamic history and thought is this dynamism, which unfortunately is little appreciated today by many Muslims and non-Muslims alike, of a vast tradition that has constantly struggled to find meanings and interpretations, and even to reinvent itself, in light of physical, intellectual and imagined challenges. Thus my research interests span the periods from early Islam and its conceptual and ideological formation within the world of Late Antiquity, through the problematic Crusader period, and until today. I have written extensively on the Qurʾan and the history of its interpretation, the radicalization of Jihad ideology in the period of the Crusades and its subsequent impact on mainstream Sunni thought and the course of Middle Eastern history, early Arabic/Islamic historical writing, Jesus and Mary in the Qurʾan and Islamic literature, and Jerusalem and its Fadaʾil (religious merits) literature. I am also interested in the question of how Muslims have addressed and wrestled with the challenges of the ideas of the Enlightenment and Modernity and reformed their societies and restricted the Shariʿa legal system to a small realm. My objective from examining this wide array of topics is to determine the level of originality on the part of Muslim scholars in shaping the Islamic tradition, and how this has led to the formation of trends and beliefs that reflect, in the first place, the intellectual, social, political and religious environments of these scholars and movements, and, subsequently, their particular understanding of Islamic history, law and tradition and the way they have to be conceptualized and transmitted.



My research has benefitted over the years from major awards: a fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities (2007-2008), residential fellowship from the Institut d'Études Avancées de Nantes (Nantes Institute for Advanced Study), France (2012-2013, and 2018), and an experienced researcher fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany (2013-2014). I also received awards and grants from the American Philosophical Society, the Mellon Foundation, the Kahn Institute at Smith College, the Sams Fund at Smith College, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, the American University of Beirut, Yale University, Middlebury College, and Smith College. I was also elected in 2018 as associate member at the Nantes Institute for Advanced Study.



I am a co-editor of the book-series The Muslim World in the Age of the Crusades (published by Brill), and serve as well on the editorial board of The History of Christian-Muslim Relations book series (published by Brill). I am also an Associate Researcher at the Institut du Pluralisme Religieux et de l’Athéisme (Institute of Religious Pluralism and Atheism), France, and advisor for the Science and Islam Videos Portal Project (Hampshire College, USA). Past affiliations include research fellowships at the Institut für Islamwissenschaft (Institute for Islamic Studies) at theFreie Universität Berlin, Germany (2013–2014), Institut d'Études Avancées de Nantes, France (2012–2013 and May-June 2015), the History Department at the American University of Beirut (1999–2000), and the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies, Jordan (1995–1999).

I have also been involved as historical advisor and consultant for, and appeared on several films and documentaries, such as the Sultan and the Saint (produced by Unity Productions Foundation for PBS and to be released on December 18, 2017), Jésus et l'islam / Jesus and Islam (produced by Jérôme Prieur and Gerard Mordillat for ARTE TV, 2015), Juifs et musulmans - si loin, si proches / Jews and Muslims: So Far, So Close (produced by Karim Miské for ARTE TV, 2013), and Jerusalem: Center of the World (produced by Two Cats Productions for PBS, 2009).

Besides, I have been active in scholarly circles and societies, as president (2010–2012) and vice-president (2008–2010) of Middle East Medievalists, and served on the executive board of the American Oriental Society (2013–2015).



The major current research project that I am conducting studies the evidence for tolerance and exchange between Muslims and Crusaders during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and how they were justified; in other words, I am looking at the factors that convinced some Muslims (be they statesmen, religious scholars, notable figures or lay people) that there was an alternative to war. This project, therefore, examines the religious, political and legal arguments advanced by those Muslims who were eager for a peaceful coexistence with the Crusaders. It will also look into the evidence for scientific and intellectual exchange between Muslims and Crusaders. The promise of this project is to help undermine the singular perception of the Crusades as an episode that was fueled by militancy and bloodshed on both sides, which will present an inspirational case of medieval tolerance and acceptance of the other that one hopes emboldens the many moderate Muslim voices that are trying to combat the phenomena of Islamic terrorism today. History after all is always relevant in the ways we invoke it to legitimize our convictions and shape our future.

This project came out of a book that I recently published: The Intensification and Reorientation of Sunni Jihad Ideology in the Crusader Period: Ibn ʿAsakir (d. 1105–1176) of Damascus and His Age (Brill, 2013, paperback edition 2015). It was co-authored with James E. Lindsay (Colorado State University). The book examines the radicalization of the ideology of jihad in mainstream Sunni thought during the Crusader period. The main focus was on the career and views of the famous medieval Damascene Hadith scholar and historian Ibn ʿAsakir (d. 571/1176) and his contribution to the jihad campaign of his political patron sultan Nur al-Din, as well as the impact of this radicalized jihad on later scholars and the course of Middle Eastern history. The book maps how Ibn ʿAsakir (re)defined the concept of Jihad as a religious obligation that emphasizes strict adherence to Sunnism as a necessary prerequisite for undertaking the military jihad against Islam's internal and external enemies. In this respect, the monograph underscores the social and political contexts of Ibn ʿAsakir and his work the Forty hadiths for inciting jihad as an example of the way certain intellectual and religious positions are generated by particular political environments and moods, and they draw on the authoritative religious sources, especially the Hadith or teachings of Muhammad, to endorse them and make them normative within Sunnism. Hence the project's contribution to understanding modern jihadist thought as a normative Sunni discourse with historical roots in works such as Ibn ʿAsakir's. The book includes an edition and an English translation of Ibn ʿAsakir's Forty Hadiths for Inciting Jihad, which was commissioned by sultan Nur al-Din for public propaganda.

Examining the radicalization of jihad ideology during the Crusader period made me aware of those Muslim voices against whom jihad was preached, hence the current project on tolerance and exchange between Muslims and Crusaders in the Middle East.

The other major current research project relates to the Muʿtazila school of rational theology and its Qurʾanic exegesis. The significance of the Muʿtazila movement is largely linked to their rationalism which left its marks on several Islamic doctrines. I am finalizing a monograph The Muʿtazila and Qurʾanic Hermeneutics: A Study of al-Hakim al-Jishumi’s (d. 494/1101) Exegesis al-Tahdhib fi Tafsir al-Qurʾan. Al-Jishumi's Tahdhib has not been properly studied yet, and his work is only available in manuscripts scattered in libraries and private collections around the world. It is the earliest substantial and complete exegesis of the Qurʾan we possess that was written by a member of the Muʿtazila movement, and, given the emphasis early Muslim scholars placed on the proper interpretation of the Qurʾan, it includes a wide array of exegetical and legal glosses otherwise lost to us.



My research on Mary and Jesus focus on the Qurʾanic stories about their lives and careers, and their treatment in Islamic scholarship. Regarding the Qurʾanic material, I examine in one article the story of the birth of Jesus under a Palm-tree (in Qurʾan 19.22-26) which shares close similarity with the Hellenic myth of the birth of Apollo. In another article, I examine the two annunciation stories (in Qurʾan 19.2-33 and 3.35-39) which also closely correspond to the birth narratives found respectively in the Gospel of Luke 1.5-2.24 and the Protevagelium of James.

Jesus BookI published a critical edition and analytical study of the biography of Jesus in Taʾrikh madinat Dimashq (History of Damascus) by Ibn ʿAsakir (d. 571H/1176CE), which reflects his preoccupations with the Crusaders' invasion of parts of the Near East and the Muslims' inability to resist it. Ibn ʿAsakir presented Jesus as the ascetic prophet and the Mahdi who will come to rescue the Muslims, lead them to triumph against their internal and external enemies, and usher in the Day of Judgment.

My work on early Arabic/Islamic historical writing came as a fruition of my M.A. dissertation research with Tarif Khalidi, at the American University of Beirut . The particular case I examined was the Futuh al-Sham (Conquests of Syria) by Abu Ismaʿil al-Azdi al-Basri (d. ca. 190/805). The dissertation (out of which came the article published in JAOS) establishes that the text dates to the second century H/eighth century CE, and that it was based on the now lost work with the same title by the early chronicler Abu Mikhnaf al-Azdi (d. 157/774) who flourished in Kufa, Iraq; before my study, al-Azdi's Futuh was largely ignored in modern scholarship on the early Islamic conquests.

Hasan Basri Book
My monograph Early Islam between Myth and History: al-Hasan al-Basri (d. 110 H/728 CE) and the Formation of His Legacy in Classical Islamic Scholarship (Brill, 2006), which is based on my dissertation completed under the supervision of Dimitri Gutas at Yale University, examines the way the early Muslim scholar al-Hasan al-Basri has been portrayed in medieval literature and how that shaped his perception in modern scholarship. I employ textual criticism and historical analysis to demonstrate the pseudepigraphal nature of the treatises attributed to him--more than ten in number that discuss topics like asceticism, mysticism and theology, including the two short epistles al-Risala ila ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan fi al-qadar (Epistle to Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik Against the Predestinarians) and Risalat al-Zuhd ila ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAziz (Treatise on Asceticism to Caliph ʿUmar II). I also investigate how, when and why these works, along with several other sayings and anecdotes, came to be attributed to him over the centuries by a variety of religious groups and intellectual trends. I argue, with reference to compelling cases, that transfer of authorship (i.e. misattribution of sayings and anecdotes) and pseudepigraphy were essential tools for the legitimization of trends and beliefs that became popular in the third/ninth century onward; the groups involved (including Sunnis, Shiʿis, Muʿtazilas, and mystics) used such means to project their views and beliefs back to the generation of Islam's founding fathers (Muhammad, his Companions, and their Successors), enabling them, on the one hand, to claim adherence to the “true” teachings of Islam and, on the other hand, to refute the beliefs of their adversaries. In the particular case of al-Hasan al-Basri, the process of his mythicization was much more intense and widespread than modern scholars have expected. My findings corroborate with the results of a number of recent studies on early Islam, necessitating a radical reconsideration of our understanding of the formative period of Islamic religious thought and the way we read and use the classical sources.


Jerusalem BookIn 2008, I co-edited (with Tamar Mayer) Jerusalem: Idea and Reality, a collection of 17 multi-disciplinary studies on Jerusalem that offer insights into the complexity and significance of the city's perception, representation and status at the historical, religious, social, artistic, and political levels from biblical to modern times. This book, which came out of the conference on Jerusalem that Timi and I organized at Middlebury College in April 2005, was published by Routledge in May 2008.

My interest in the significance of Jerusalem in Islam focuses on the period spanning from Muhammad to the end of the Crusades. I am particularly interested in the way Muslims first identified and acknowledged Jerusalem's historical and religious symbolism as stemming from its Biblical heritage (in particular the personalities and events associated with the presence of the Israelite Temple), and how and why it shifted through times to become primarily dependent on Muhammad's legendary Night Journey and Ascension to Heaven. A project underway is to finalize the reconstruction, critical edition and translation of the earliest text on the religious symbolism of Jerusalem known to have been authored by a Muslim scholar. It is entitled Fadaʾil Bayt al-Maqdis (The Merits of Jerusalem) by al-Walid b. Hammad al-Ramli (d. 300/912 CE), who lived in the town of Ramla, west of Jerusalem. An analytical study of this text, its content and significance appears in Chapter 6 of Jerusalem: Idea and Reality.


The Mosaic of Islam: An Conversation with Perry Anderson

I am also becoming interested in projects directed to a broad and non-specialist audience. The Mosaic of Islam: A Conversation with Perry Anderson (Verso Books, 2016) is the fruit of one of those initiatives. The idea of the book started as a series of conversations with the great historian Perry Anderson while we were both fellows at the Institut d'Études Avancées de Nantes, and which were continued after that. It covers the Qurʾan and the Muhammad movement, the spread of Islam and the formation of a rich diversity in beliefs and thought, all the way to modernity and the changes/challenges faced by modern Muslims, including the rise of conservative movements such as Wahhabism, Salafism, and militant Islam. The French edition--La mosaïque de l'islam: entertien sur le Coran et le djihadisme avec Perry Anderson--was published in August 2016 by Fayard (Paris) as part of the series Poids et Mesures du Monde edted by Alain Supiot (Institut d'Études Avancées de Nantes). The German edition--Das Mosaik des Islam--was published by Berenberg Verlag (Berlin) in March 2018. The Spanish edition -- El mosaico del islam: una conversación con Perry Anderson -- was published by Siglo XXI (Madrid) in April 2018. A special edition for South Asia was released by Three Essays Collective (2017).

Another book directed to a general audience is Islam between Violence and Nonviolence (in the final stage of composition). The objective of the book is to show that the foundational sources of Islam (the Qurʾan, the Sunna of Muhammad, the teachings of imams and mystical saints, and the various legal traditions and schools of Shariʿa) do not have a clear and emphatic voice on either of these issues. They offer conflicting positions, which reflect an unresolvable struggle. Since Islam is also defined by what Muslims say and do, the book delves as well into the Muslims' attitudes (historically and today) towards the issues of violence and nonviolence.





Since July 2010, I hold the rank of Professor of Religion in the Department of Religion. My employment at Smith started in July 2005 as Assistant Professor and I received tenure and promotion to Associate Professor in July 2008. I teach courses on the Islamic history and religious tradition, including the two surveys: The Islamic Tradition and Islamic Thought and the Challenge of Modernity. Other lecture courses I regularly teach include: Jihad and the Qurʾan. I also teach lower and upper level seminars, such as The Holy Land, The Making of Muhammad, and The Qurʾan, Muslims and Shariʿa Law. Prior to Smith, I taught in the Department of Religion at Middlebury College (2002-2005), in the Department of History at the American University of Beirut (2000-2001), and in the Department of Religious Studies at Yale University (1998-1999).



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